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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 28-30

Response of the respiratory system to exercise in proliferative phase of menstrual cycle in a group of perimenopausal obese homemakers


1 Department of Physiology, Peoples Education Society Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Kuppam, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 Department of Physiology, Basaveshwara Medical College, Chitradurga, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Anesthesiology, Basaveshwara Medical College, Chitradurga, Karnataka, India

Date of Web Publication7-Apr-2014

Correspondence Address:
Amrith Pakkala
40, SM Road, T. Dasarahalli, Bangalore - 560 057
India
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DOI: 10.4103/1119-0388.130179

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  Abstract 

Background: The role of hormones on lung function tests were well known in the normal course of the menstrual cycle. Significant increase in both progesterone (37%) and estradiol (13.5%), whereas no change in plasma follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone was observed in exercising women in previous studies. Therefore, this study was intended to see the limitations of the respiratory system in adaptability to exercise in proliferative phase of menstrual cycle in perimenopausal obese homemakers. Materials and Methods: Healthy young adult females between 42 and 45 years who regularly undergo training and participate in competitive middle distance running events for at least previous 3 years were considered in the control, whereas the study group did not have any such regular exercise program were obese homemakers. The two groups were in perimenopausal age group. They were made to undergo computerized spirometry after undergoing maximal exercise testing on a motorized treadmill. Results: It was observed that exercise per se does not cause a statistically significant change in dynamic lung function parameters Maximum Mid Expiratory Flow rate (MMEF), peak expiratory flow rate, mid-expiratory flow 25-75% in either of the groups. Conclusion: This finding supports the hypothesis that the respiratory system is not normally the most limiting factor in the delivery of oxygen even under the predominant influence of estrogen in proliferative phase, which is further accentuated by exercise.

Keywords: Adaptability, estrogen in exercise, homemakers, obese, pulmonary function test


How to cite this article:
Pakkala A, Ganashree CP, Raghavendra T. Response of the respiratory system to exercise in proliferative phase of menstrual cycle in a group of perimenopausal obese homemakers. Trop J Med Res 2014;17:28-30

How to cite this URL:
Pakkala A, Ganashree CP, Raghavendra T. Response of the respiratory system to exercise in proliferative phase of menstrual cycle in a group of perimenopausal obese homemakers. Trop J Med Res [serial online] 2014 [cited 2019 Sep 23];17:28-30. Available from: http://www.tjmrjournal.org/text.asp?2014/17/1/28/130179


  Introduction Top


The role of hormones on the healthy pulmonary system in delivering oxygen to meet the demands of various degrees of exercise has been a matter of differences in opinion. Genomic actions are exerted by steroids such as estrogen, progesterone, testosterone with intracellular receptors. [1] The prevention and treatment of negative affect associated with menopause is becoming increasingly important. Various data suggest that natural changes in endogenous estrogen levels may underlie women increased susceptibility to physiological limitations as a result of the aging process. [2] Fluctuations of ventilation and alveolar pCO 2 in various phases of menstrual cycle have been ascribed to the action of progesterone, although this may not be the sole determinant of these changes. [3] There are conflicting reports that the respiratory system is not normally the most limiting factor in the delivery of oxygen to the muscles during maximal muscle aerobic metabolism, whereas others do not subscribe to this. [1],[4] Within this context it is appropriate to study the effect of proliferative phase of menstrual cycle on ventilatory functions after exercise.

Mechanical constraints on exercise hyperpnoea have been studied as a factor limiting performance in endurance athletes. [5] Others have considered the absence of structural adaptability to physical training as one of the "weaknesses" inherent in the healthy pulmonary system response to exercise. [6]

Ventilatory functions are an important part of functional diagnostics, [7] aiding selection and optimization of training and early diagnosis of sports pathology. Assessment of exercise response of dynamic lung functions in the healthy pulmonary system in the trained and the untrained has a role in clearing gaps in the above areas, especially a special group such as perimenopausal women.


  Materials and Methods Top


The present study was conducted as a part of cardiopulmonary efficiency studies on two study groups consisting of obese women homemakers (n = 20) and control group (n = 20) comparable in age and gender.

Informed consent was obtained and clinical examination to rule out any underlying disease was done. Healthy young adult females between 42 and 45 years who regularly undergo training and participate in competitive middle distance running events for at least the previous 3 years were considered in the control group, whereas the study group did not have any such regular exercise program. Smoking, clinical evidence of anemia, involvement of cardiorespiratory system was considered as exclusion criteria. Menstrual history was ascertained to confirm proliferative phase of menstrual cycle.

Detailed procedure of exercise treadmill test and computerized spirometry was explained to the subjects.

Dynamic lung functions were measured in both the groups before exercise was evaluated following the standard procedure of spirometry using computerized spirometer Spl-95. All subjects were made to undergo maximal exercise testing to VO 2 max levels on a motorized treadmill.

After exercise, the assessment of dynamic lung functions was repeated. All these sets of recordings were done on both the nonathlete as well as the athlete groups.

Statistical analysis was done using paired Student's t test for comparing parameters within the group before and after exercise testing and unpaired t test for comparing the two groups of subjects. A P < 0.01 was considered as significant.


  Results Top


It is clear from [Table 1] that the study group is obese. From [Table 2] and [Table 3], it is clear that there is no statistically significant difference in dynamic lung functions before and after exercise between the two groups.
Table 1: Comparison of anthropometric data and VO2max of study and control with statistical analysis


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Table 2: Comparison of dynamic lung functions of study group before exercise testing and after exercise testing with statistical analysis of nonathletes (n=10)


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Table 3: Comparison of dynamic lung functions of control group before exercise testing and after exercise testing with statistical analysis of athletes (n=10)


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  Discussion Top


Considerable information can be obtained by studying the exercise response of dynamic lung functions in untrained and trained subjects.

Intragroup comparison is helpful in noting the exercise response and intergroup comparison in evaluating adaptations of the respiratory system to training.

On comparing the anthropometric data of the two study groups, it is clear that the age- and gender-matched subjects have no statistically significant difference in height taking a P < 0.05 as significant.

VO 2 max values were higher in the controls and were statistically significant (P < 0.001). This observation is expected in view of the training stimulus and adaptability of both the pulmonary system and the cardiovascular system. VO 2 max is an objective index of the functional capacity of the body's ability to generate power.

Forced vital capacity (FVC) is the volume expired with the greatest force and speed from total lung capacity (TLC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 st second (FEV1) that expired in the 1 st second during the same maneuver. FEV1 was initially used as an indirect method of estimating its predecessor as the principal pulmonary function test, the maximal breathing capacity. [8]

On comparing the response of exercise within the two study groups and in between them, there was no statistically significant difference in FVC and FEV1 under any condition. A normal FEV1/FVC ratio was observed always. Another way of looking at forced expiration is to measure both expiratory flow and the volume expired. The maximum flow obtained can be measured from a flow-volume curve is the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). The peak flow occurs at high lung volumes and is effort dependent. Flow at lower lung volumes is effort independent. Flow at lower lung volumes depends on the elastic recoil pressure of the lungs and the resistance of the airways upstream or distal to the point at which dynamic compression occurs. Measurements of flow at low lung volumes, mid-expiratory flow (MEF, 25-75%) are often used as indices of peripheral or small airways resistance. [8]

On examining [Table 2] and [Table 3], it is clear that exercise per se does not cause a statistically significant change in dynamic lung function parameters MMEF, PEFR, MEF 25-75% in either of the groups. This finding supports the hypothesis that the respiratory system is not normally the most limiting factor in the delivery of oxygen. [9] These findings are in line with other studies. [10],[11]

Thirty minutes of exercise at 74% of VO 2 was found to cause a significant increase in both progesterone (37%) and estradiol (13.5%), whereas no change in plasma follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone was observed in exercising women; [7] others have confirmed these findings. [8] This finding supports the hypothesis that the respiratory system is not normally the most limiting factor in the delivery of oxygen even under the predominant influence of a sedentary and obese lifestyle of the group studied.

 
  References Top

1.Cunningham GR, Tindall DJ, Means AR. Differences in steroid specificity for rat androgen binding protein and the cytoplasmic receptor. Steroids 1979;33:261-76.  Back to cited text no. 1
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2.Pakkala A. Mid-career blues in healthcare workers: A physiological approach in ethical management. J Midlife Health 2010;1:35-7.  Back to cited text no. 2
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3.Frye CA. Steroids, reproductive endocrine function, and affect. A review. Minerva Ginecol 2009;61:541-62.  Back to cited text no. 3
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4.Guyton AC, Hall JE, editors. Text Book of Medical Physiology, 11 th ed. Missisippi: Saunders; 2006. p. 1061-2.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Johnson BD, Saupe KW, Dempsey JA. Mechanical constraints on exercise hypernea in endurance athletes. J Appl Physiol (1985) 1992;73:874-86.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Dempsey JA, Johnson BD, Saupe KW. Adaptations and limitations in the pulmonary system during exercise. Chest 1990;97(Suppl 3):81S-7S.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Andziulis A, Gocentas A, Jascaniniene N, Jaszczanin J, Juozulynas A, Radzijewska M. Respiratory function dynamics in individuals with increased motor activity during standard exercise testing. Fiziol Zh 2005;51:80-95.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Seaton A, Seaton D, Leitch AG, editors. Crofton and Douglas's Respiratory Diseases, 5 th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2000. p. 43-5.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Ganong WF. Review of Medical Physiology, 22 nd ed. San Francisco: Lange; 2005. p. 444.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Bonen A, Ling WY, MacIntyre KP, Neil R, McGrail JC, Belcastro AN. Effects of exercise on the serum concentrations of FSH, LH, progesterone and estradiol. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1979;42:15-23.  Back to cited text no. 10
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11.Jurkowski JE, Jones NL, Walker C, Younglai EV, Sutton JR. Ovarian hormonal responses to exercise. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol 1978;44:109-14.  Back to cited text no. 11
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  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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