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 Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-4

Applications of Bacillus subtilis as an important bacterium in medical sciences and human life


1 Department of Infectious Diseases, Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran
2 Department of Modern Sciences and Technologies, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

Date of Web Publication4-Mar-2015

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Seyed Hossein Shahcheraghi
Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd
Iran
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DOI: 10.4103/1119-0388.152530

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  Abstract 

Probiotics are a group of organisms without pathogenic effects. These organisms are known as creatures that have advantageous effects on the safety of their host. The most common kinds of microbes that are used as probiotics are Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria; but several yeasts and bacteria may also be used. In this study, we have reviewed the benefits of Bacillus subtilis as a probiotic bacterium. The journals published from 1989 to 2012, have been used in the study. At the start of the twentieth century, these organisms were thought to usefully affect their host by ameliorating the intestinal bacterial equilibrium, and therefore, injuncting the toxin-producing organisms and pathogens. Nowadays, particular health effects are being examined and documented, including the prohibition and remedy of pathogen-induced diarrhea, palliation of severe intestinal inflammatory diseases, urogenital infections, and atopic cases. Probiotics are generally used as a division of foods with particularly added active live cultures, including soy yogurt, yogurt or as dietary supplements. B. subtilis strains produce antibiotics and enzymes that are important in both medical and industrial sciences.

Keywords: Bacillus subtilis , microbes, probiotics


How to cite this article:
Shahcheraghi SH, Ayatollahi J, Lotfi M. Applications of Bacillus subtilis as an important bacterium in medical sciences and human life. Trop J Med Res 2015;18:1-4

How to cite this URL:
Shahcheraghi SH, Ayatollahi J, Lotfi M. Applications of Bacillus subtilis as an important bacterium in medical sciences and human life. Trop J Med Res [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Apr 18];18:1-4. Available from: http://www.tjmrjournal.org/text.asp?2015/18/1/1/152530


  Introduction Top


The word probiotic is related to live organisms that are creatures that are beneficial to their host. [1],[2],[3]

Bacteria that are probiotic have the numerous applications. This is because of a range of feasible health effects of probiotics. Probiotics are available in the form of powders, capsules, enriched yogurts, yogurt-like products, and milk. The health effects related to them include, cholesterol-lowering, immune system excitation, and prohibition of cancer aggression. [1],[3],[4],[5],[6],[7]

Probiotics, in recent reviews, [8],[9],[10],[11] have been introduced as agents that are useful in the prohibition of necrotizing enterocolitis in premature children. Due to the enthusiasm during conduction of revoews, precaution is recommended by the Scientific Foundation, as short- and long-term safety have not yet been established. [12],[13]

The explanation of accessible data on probiotic organisms is further separated by dose, variation of variant selection, delivery vehicle, and assessment of livability and impression. [14]

The lactic acid produced by LAB and their natural conformity to the gut condition has provided them the benefit of being used as probiotics, more than other organisms. [15] Most studies have also been restricted to Bacillus. [16],[17]

The basic interest in the Bacillus species, as probiotic organisms, has only come about since the last 15 years. [18],[19],[20]

The Bacillus species that have been most comprehensively investigated are Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus clausii, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus coagulans, and Bacillus licheniformis. [21],[22]

Bacillus subtilis, as a probiotic organism, has beneficial effects on both animals and humans. [23],[24]

The primary aim of this review is to investigate the benefits of B. subtilis in medical and industrial sciences.

The journals published from 1989 to 2012 have been used in the study.

Features of Bacillus subtilis

B. subtilis is a catalase-positive bacterium that is also known as the 'hay bacillus' or 'grass bacillus'.

This bacterium is an endospore-forming, aerobic, rod-shaped organism popularly found in soil, water, and as an aggregation in plants. B. subtilis and its close Bacilli are the main source of industrial enzymes such as proteases and amylases. It has also been used for investigating protein secretion and for expansion as a host for the generation of inharmonious proteins. [25]

Under conditions of nutritional esurience, B. subtilis stops growing and begins its responses to restitute growth by enhancement of the metabolic activity. These responses include the implantation of motility and chemotaxis and generation of antibiotics and macromolecular hydrolases (proteases and carbohydrases). [26]

Bacillus subtilis directly secretes proteins into the culture medium, shortening the filtration of the recombinant proteins. This bacterium does not produce endotoxins. [27]

Several vectors have been recognized for the production process of proteins in B. subtilis. [28],[29],[30]

The high expression of human cytokines is still an existing problem in B. subtilis. In addition, few studies on the production in this organism have been reported. [31],[32],[33],[34]

B. subtilis is a very good model for discussion on peptidoglycan. [35]

B. subtilis has the ability to take up and recombine extracellular DNA into its genome, which makes it naturally qualified for genetical transformation. [36]

The genome sequence related to B. subtilis has supplied a great understanding about the lifestyle of the bacterium. This bacterium is not a pathogen. Interestingly, the components of this genome have encoded many pathways for the use of plant molecules. [37]

The growth of biofilms is perceived when B. subtilis is inseminated on the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. [38],[39]

B. subtilis is an important probiotic bacterium. Therefore, we reviewed the advantages of Bacillus subtilis as a probiotic bacterium.

Applications of Bacillus subtilis

Lactobacillus, Saccharomyces, Streptococcus, Aspergillus spp., and Bacillus are the important probiotics. [40]

They have beneficial effects on their host, which depends on their potency to endure oxygen stressors, heat, and osmotic stress during storage and processing. [41]

A strain related to B. subtilis (LS 1-2) can ameliorate intestinal bacterial balance and the gut health of broilers. Also, it can be used as a growth promoter in diets related to broilers. [42]

Bacillus subtilis is a bacterium that has been successfully planned to express inharmonious antigenic factors genetically fused to proteins of the spore coat, as a vaccine vehicle endowed with considerable resistance against heat, and affects as a probiotic organism for both animals and humans. [43]

B. subtilis strains are also used in the generation of bacterial vaccines either as antigen bearers or as antigen cellular manufactories. The application of B. subtilis spores as vaccine vehicles, delivered through mouth, has attracted noticeable attention because of its probiotic effects and the extended shelf-life. [44],[45],[46]

In another study, it was demonstrated that B. subtilis (strain NC11) is a potential probiotic, and displays a good role as an inhibitor against infection related to Salmonella enteritidis in the intestinal epithelial cells. [47]

Another study has shown that B. Subtilis (WD161) ― producer of amylase ― can be applied to co-culturing with Clostridium butylicum (TISTR 1032). This will increase the production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) from starch without an anaerobic remedy. [48]

The B. subtilis strain, AS-S01a, is a bacterium that produces a high rate of alkaline alpha-amylase. It may be applied as a good bacterial source in the production of a high rate of alkaline alpha-amylase under an appropriate situation. This enzyme does not need the Ca2+ ion for performing its action as a detergent and it shows consistency in the presence of enzymes, such as, protease, surfactant, oxidant, and metal ion chelating agents. [49]

Bacillus subtilis (natto) Takahashi, as a natto starter, is generally applied for producing a fermented product, which has been a traditional food in Japan for more than a 1000 years. [50] It also produces milk-clotting enzymes. [51]

Fibrinolytic enzymes in the bacteria have a dissolvent role about fibrin clots and are evidently used as thrombolytic agents. [52] These enzymes have been detected in various bacteria, the most important among which is the genus Bacillus, specially Bacillus subtilis, from traditional fermented foods. [53],[54] The bacterial numbers, water quality, and growth during early development of white shrimp enhances the effect of the Bacillus subtilis in the shrimp. [55]

In another study, Bacillus subtilis E20, a probiotic bacterium, was demonstrated to have the potency to increase growth in white shrimp by enhancing the action of the digestive enzymes and food attraction. [56]

Aerobic fermentation is a common method for producing enzymes in B. subtilis strains (e.g. amylase, protease), insecticides, antibiotics, purine nucleotides, polyglutamic acid, D-ribose, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), and so on. These products are important in both medical and industrial sciences. [57],[58],[59],[60],[61],[62]

Acute and subchronic toxicity testing have now been widely examined on B. subtilis var. natto in in vitro studies. These studies are conducted on animals. Their results protect the application of B. subtilis as a food supplement. [63]


  Summary Top


This review shows that B. subtilis is an important probiotic bacterium. The application of Bacillus subtilis as a probiotic is increasing quickly with the enhancing number of studies demonstrating immune stimulation, antimicrobial activities, and competitive exclusion. The single and most important benefit of products related to this bacterium is that they can be produced easily and the stability of the final product can be assured. Furthermore, they can be incorporated into everyday foods.

 
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